Coffee History – From Ethiopia To The Middle East-mycoolboy

Coffee The first Homo sapiens are considered to have first walked the earth in the landlocked land of Ethiopia 400,000 years ago. In about 399,000 years, one their descendants still in the same land would discover coffee beans, and hand down to the rest of world a stimulating and energizing drink loved by the millions upon millions of the sons and daughters of the Ethiopian Homo sapiens. The first coffee plants are said to have .e from a region called Kaffa in southwestern Ethiopia. The similarity of the region’s name where coffee trees were first discovered, Kaffa, and the English name of the drink, coffee, has led a good number of etymologists to conclude that the two are related etymologically. Not all word experts, however, agree. Those who do not accept the etymological link between "Kaffa" and "coffee" argue that the coffee plant already had a name in the region –bunn or bunna*. There was no need to invent a new term for it. In place of "Kaffa", "kahve", a Turkish term, is often proposed as the origin of the English "coffee". "Kahve" first became "caffe" in Italian before it joined English. .ing from the Arabic word "qaha", which means "to have no appetite", "kahve" refersto a drink that suppresses the appetite. Although we will perhaps never really know who or how coffee drink was discovered, legends abound. Two of the legends .e from Ethiopia. One mentions the goatherd Kaldi and another points to the Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hassan al-Shadhili as the first man to taste coffee. The third story finds its roots in Yemen. Kaldi’s story likely started as an oral tradition related by the tribal leaders and elders to their sons and daughters. It was only in 1671 CE that it appeared in writing. It is said that he was a 9th Century goatherd belonging to the Oromo people in Ethiopia who observed that his goats became hyperactive, dancing and frolicking, every time they ate the red berries of bunn plant. Curious, he tried the berries himself and found that he too became bouncy and spirited. Kaldi was a genuine believer in Allah and the imams. Not knowing why he felt spirited and agitated after eating the berries, he brought some of them to the Muslim holy men. One of them, though, pronounced the berries to be a temptation from the devil and threw them into the fire. When the berries were roasted, a rich and appealing aroma wafted from the embers, rousing the attention and curiosity of the other holy men. The imams, perhaps wanting to see if the devil was indeed inside the berries, gathered and ground them. Water was poured over the grounds, perhaps to see if the devil would float out of it. Kaldi and the imams, thus, created to world’s first cup of coffee. A Sufi mystic from Yemen on a journey in Ethiopia, is proclaimed by another legend as the first man to have tasted coffee. He noticed that birds that ate the berries of the bunn plant became very lively and energetic. Perhaps feeling tired from his travels and needing energy, he tried the berries himself and immediately felt revitalized. Yemen is also suggested in a third legend as the birthplace of coffee. As related in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript, Omar, a follower of Sheik Abou’l Hasan Schadneli from Mocha, was driven out to a cave in the Ousab desert. While wandering in the desert foraging for food, he came across the red berries of the coffee plant. He found them to be too bitter, though. He tried roasting them but this only made them hard. He boiled the berries to make them softer, and noticed that the water has turned dark brown and had a very pleasant smell. He drank the liquid and felt his hunger immediately relieved, the first man to taste coffee. Travelers across the desert brought news of Omar’s discovery to Mocha, and soon he was called back to the city. Walking back to Mocha, he picked up all the berries he could carry. When he arrived, he distributed them to the people, teaching them how to prepare the drink. When they experienced its refreshing and rejuvenating effects, they began to speak of it as a miracle drug. They even made Omar a saint. The stories are very interesting. While they do reflect the Ethiopian origin of the coffee plant and the fact that by the 13th century coffee was widely drank in the Sufi monasteries in Yemen, there is, however, no way to determine if there was truly a Kaldi, or Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili, or Omar. The legends, nonetheless, point to the importance of coffee among the Ethiopians and Yemenis. This is because no legends are spun around unimportant things. It is now confirmed that by the 13th century, coffee was in extensive use in Arabia. Some scholars would even push this to the 10th. It has also been established that by the 15th century, the Yemenis were not only importing coffee berries and beans from Ethiopia but the plant as well. Both the Sufi mystics and the Whirling Dervishes found coffee to be very useful. It kept the former awake as they recited their nighttime prayers and the latter alert as they danced round and round during their rituals. Coffee began to be thought of as a religious drink because of its link with the praying Sufi mystics and dancing Whirling Dervishes. From the Sufi monasteries in Yemen, the use of coffee spread to the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and as far away as Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, and Istanbul. Strategically located between Ethiopia and the cities of Mecca, Medina, Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Istanbul, Mocha emerged as a major trading center for coffee from the 15th to 17th centuries. It even gave its name to a now-popular coffee and chocolate drink. It was not only the Sufi and Whirling Dervishes who enjoyed drinking coffee. So did the laity. The Yemeni authorities promoted coffee drinking to support trade. This, in turn, encouraged the emergence and growth of coffeehouses called kahve kanes. These sprouted not only in Yemen but in the whole Muslim Arab world as far away as Istanbul. Drinking coffee, however, was not the only activity in the kahve kanes. Like our coffeehouses and bars today, they were centers for socialization and entertainment, .plete with music, singing, and dancing. In time, they became hotbeds of political discussions. Having entered forbidden ground, the kahve kanes were soon closed. Apart from politicians, a group of conservative Muslim Imams from Mecca preached that coffee .es from the devil. It was only in 1524 when the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Selim I directed the Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-Imadi to issue a fatwa lifting the ban imposed by the Imams that the people resumed drinking the beverage. Before the 18th century, coffee was similarly banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church which was not lifted until the mid 1800s. North African and Middle Eastern Muslim traders were already doing business with their Ve.ian counterparts by the 17th century. Thanks to these merchants, the Europeans, and eventually the world, learned about coffee. The Bunn Corporation, a manufacturer of coffee and tea machines, was not named after the bunn or bunna, the Kaffa word for coffee. It was named after Ge.e Bunn, the corporation’s founder. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: